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Table 5 Effect Sizes (Cohen's d) for Each Statement for Treatment Groupings*

From: Patient expectations for placebo treatments commonly used in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) clinical trials: a pilot study

  HVLA & ULTRA ULTRA & LT HVLA & LT
S1 -0.29 -0.21 -0.49
S2 -0.11 -0.31 -0.38
S3 -0.41 -0.09 -0.47
S4 -0.21 0 -0.19
  1. *HVLA – High-Velocity Low-Amplitude; ULTRA = Sub-therapeutic Ultrasound;
  2. LT = Light Touch.
  3. Cohen's d – 0.2 small effect; 0.5 moderate effect; 0.8 large effect [18].