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Table 1 Mean and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for Heart Rate, LFnu, HFnu, and LF/HF Parameters

From: Osteopathic manipulative treatment and its relationship to autonomic nervous system activity as demonstrated by heart rate variability: a repeated measures study

   Control Sham OMT OMT
    95% CI   95% CI   95% CI
  Position Mean Lower Bound Upper Bound Mean Lower Bound Upper Bound Mean Lower Bound Upper Bound
Heart Rate (bpm) H1 67.61 61.79 73.44 65.64 60.42 70.86 62.43 57.89 66.96
  Tilt 80.51 74.52 86.51 78.73 72.03 85.43 71.74 66.29 77.20
  H2 65.43 59.85 71.01 64.03 58.74 69.32 59.53 55.44 63.62
LFnu H1 53.21 44.05 62.36 44.97 35.63 54.31 40.08 28.80 51.35
  Tilt 80.19 76.00 84.38 76.93 71.25 82.61 58.33 49.87 66.79
  H2 53.30 43.90 62.70 47.98 39.32 56.64 41.49 30.48 52.50
HFnu H1 47.89 38.41 57.38 54.43 44.53 64.33 59.37 47.37 71.37
  Tilt 20.15 15.73 24.57 21.57 16.43 26.71 41.44 32.40 50.48
  H2 47.50 37.61 57.39 51.38 42.22 60.53 56.60 45.64 67.54
LF/HF H1 1.46 0.97 1.96 1.17 0.53 1.81 1.09 0.41 1.77
  Tilt 4.85 3.62 6.08 4.44 2.92 5.96 1.83 1.11 2.56
  H2 1.60 0.90 2.29 1.29 0.58 2.00 1.04 0.49 1.60
  1. H1 = first horizontal position, Tilt = 50-degree head-up position, H2 = second (recovery) horizontal position. LFnu = normalized low frequency, HFnu = normalized high frequency, LF/HF = low frequency to high frequency ratio. The protocol was completed three times, Control, Sham, and OMT.