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Table 2 Baseline and posttreatment actual pulmonary function results for each technique

From: The immediate effect of individual manipulation techniques on pulmonary function measures in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Technique Minimal-touch Control TLP with Activation TLP Without Activation Rib Raising Myofascial Release
FVC (L) 2.79 ± 0.99 2.83 ± 1.05 2.91 ± 1.05 2.75 ± 1.02 2.83 ± 1.02
  2.80 ± 0.97 2.79 ± 1.00 2.85 ± 1.01 2.77 ± 1.05 2.79 ± 0.97
  P = 0.65 P = 0.31 P = 0.02 P = 0.85 P = 0.12
FEV1 (L) 1.57 ± 0.79 1.59 ± 0.82 1.63 ± 0.78 1.51 ± 0.79 1.56 ± 0.75
  1.57 ± 0.79 1.58 ± 0.81 1.59 ± 0.75 1.53 ± 0.82 1.52 ± 0.71
  P = 0.90 P = 0.40 P = 0.07 P = 0.45 P = 0.03
FEV1/FVC (%) 55 ± 13 54 ± 13 55 ± 13 53 ± 12 54 ± 12
  54 ± 13 55 ± 14 55 ± 13 54 ± 13 53 ± 11
  P = 0.67 P = 0.73 P = 0.63 P = 0.46 P = 0.46
FEF25-75% (L/s) 0.81 ± 0.62 0.80 ± 0.61 0.82 ± 0.55 0.73 ± 0.52 0.75 ± 0.52
  0.78 ± 0.62 0.81 ± 0.59 0.75 ± 0.51 0.77 ± 0.62 0.68 ± 0.46
  P = 0.26 P = 0.30 P = 0.006 P = 0.56 P = 0.007
FEFmax (L/s) 4.55 ± 2.28 4.75 ± 2.34 4.79 ± 2.35 4.68 ± 2.35 4.69 ± 2.31
  4.41 ± 2.32 4.43 ± 2.16 4.55 ± 2.27 4.37 ± 2.31 4.42 ± 2.37
  P = 0.38 P = 0.001 P = 0.08 P = 0.01 P = 0.007
Expiratory time (s) 9.60 ± 1.63 9.54 ± 1.62 9.79 ± 2.52 10.00 ± 1.90 9.78 ± 1.74
  9.74 ± 1.77 9.99 ± 2.60 9.29 ± 1.95 10.37 ± 2.08 10.06 ± 2.01
  P = 0.53 P = 0.65 P = 0.055 P = 0.27 P = 0.42
MVV (L/min) 56 ± 30 58 ± 29 60 ± 31 56 ± 31 58 ± 30
  56 ± 30 55 ± 29 57 ± 30 52 ± 28 55 ± 30
  P = 0.64 P = 0.005 P = 0.02 P = 0.0004 P = 0.03
SVC (L) 2.91 ± 1.05 2.98 ± 1.08 3.05 ± 1.10 2.82 ± 1.05 3.07 ± 1.09
  2.90 ± 1.14 2.87 ± 1.04 2.98 ± 1.10 2.85 ± 1.12 2.95 ± 1.06
  P = 0.42 P = 0.04 P = 0.09 P = 0.81 P = 0.008
IC (L) 2.14 ± 0.78 2.10 ± 0.80 2.13 ± 0.79 2.00 ± 0.73 2.14 ± 0.77
  2.03 ± 0.72 2.12 ± 0.76 2.09 ± 0.76 2.06 ± 0.78 2.10 ± 0.76
  P = 0.008 P = 0.42 P = 0.38 P = 0.84 P = 0.19
ERV (L) 0.77 ± 0.44 0.88 ± 0.45 0.92 ± 0.51 0.82 ± 0.52 0.93 ± 0.55
  0.87 ± 0.62 0.75 ± 0.44 0.89 ± 0.64 0.79 ± 0.52 0.86 ± 0.48
  P = 0.18 P <0.0001 P = 0.22 P = 0.42 P = 0.30
TGV (L) 4.14 ± 0.91 4.17 ± 0.88 4.29 ± 0.97 4.32 ± 1.13 4.35 ± 1.05
  4.07 ± 0.90 4.18 ± 0.91 4.23 ± 1.03 4.16 ± 1.05 4.33 ± 1.08
  P = 0.43 P = 0.56 P = 0.16 P = 0.19 P = 0.91
RV (L) 3.36 ± 0.81 3.30 ± 0.77 3.38 ± 0.92 3.50 ± 1.21 3.41 ± 0.96
  3.19 ± 0.84 3.41 ± 0.93 3.33 ± 0.99 3.37 ± 1.01 3.48 ± 1.08
  P = 0.15 P = 0.03 P = 0.48 P = 0.62 P = 0.34
TLC (L) 6.27 ± 1.16 6.27 ± 1.14 6.41 ± 1.11 6.32 ± 1.31 6.47 ± 1.23
  6.10 ± 1.03 6.29 ± 0.99 6.33 ± 1.21 6.21 ± 1.14 6.44 ± 1.27
  P = 0.07 P = 0.41 P = 0.22 P = 0.39 P = 0.34
RV/TLC (%) 54 ± 12 53 ± 12 53 ± 13 55 ± 13 53 ± 13
  53 ± 13 55 ± 14 53 ± 13 55 ± 14 54 ± 13
  P = 0.59 P = 0.04 P = 0.79 P = 0.85 P = 0.058
Raw (cm H2O/L/s) 4.09 ± 3.18 3.94 ± 3.15 3.36 ± 2.19 4.30 ± 3.09 4.44 ± 3.17
  4.05 ± 2.76 3.94 ± 2.74 4.04 ± 3.20 4.22 ± 3.11 4.06 ± 2.75
  P = 0.95 P = 0.82 P = 0.04 P = 0.30 P = 0.75
  1. Results are reported as mean ± SD. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to test for significant baseline to posttreatment within-technique changes. Measures with significant within-technique changes are highlighted.
  2. FVC, forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FEF25-75%, average forced expiratory flow rate over the middle 50% of the FVC; FEFmax, maximum forced expiratory flow rate; MVV, maximal voluntary volume; SVC, slow vital capacity; IC, inspiratory capacity; ERV, expiratory reserve volume; TGV, total gas volume; RV, residual volume; TLC, total lung capacity; Raw, airway resistance.