Skip to main content

Table 2 Percentages of Correct Pretest and Posttest Answers Second Year (N = 101) and First Year (N = 53) Classes

From: Learning outcomes from a biomedical research course for second year osteopathic medical students

  Research Concept Class Pretest Posttest
    Correct (95% CI) Correct (95% CI)
1 Statistical significance Second Year‡ 15.8 (8.7-23.0) 32.7 (23.5-41.8)
   First Year 15.1 (5.5-24.7) 20.8 (9.8-31.7)
2 Type II error Second Year‡ 30.7 (21.7-39.7) 54.5 (44.7-64.2)
   First Year 35.8 (22.9-48.8) 34.0 (21.2-46.7)
3 Sensitivity-Specificity Second Year‡ 51.5 (41.7-61.2) 71.3 (62.5-80.1)
   First Year 47.2 (33.7-60.6) 52.8 (39.4-66.3)
4 Phases of clinical trials† Second Year‡ 43.6 (33.9-53.2) 74.3 (65.7-82.8)
   First Year 43.4 (30.1-56.7) 37.7 (24.7-50.8)
5 Linear regression Second Year 47.5 (37.8-57.3) 50.5 (40.7-60.2)
   First Year 52.8 (39.4-66.3) 49.1 (35.6-62.5)
6 Essential parts of published research Second Year 57.4 (47.8-67.1) 53.5 (43.7-63.2)
   First Year 67.9 (55.4-80.5) 54.7 (41.3-68.1)
7 Protection of human subjects Second Year‡ 11.9 (5.6-18.2) 40.6 (31.0-50.2)
   First Year 13.2 (4.1-22.3) 13.2 (4.1-22.3)
8 Case-control design* Second Year 3.0 (0.0-6.3) 6.9 (2.0-11.9)
   First Year 0.0 (0.0-0.0) 3.8 (0.0-8.9)
9 Interpretation of results Second Year 21.8 (13.7-29.8) 33.7 (24.4-42.9)
   First Year 17.0 (6.9-27.1) 18.9 (8.3-29.4)
10 Define Bias* Second Year 16.8 (9.5-24.1) 22.8 (14.6-31)
   First Year 22.6 (11.4-33.9) 18.9 (8.3-29.4)
11 Power and sample size * Second Year 4.0 (0.2-7.8) 11.9 (5.6-18.2)
   First Year 15.1 (5.5-24.7) 13.2 (4.1-22.3)
12 Interpretation of descriptive statistics * Second Year 35.6 (26.3-45.0) 45.5 (35.8-55.3)
   First Year 45.3 (31.9-58.7) 37.7 (24.7-50.8)
13 Chi-square statistic Second Year 25.7 (17.2-34.3) 37.6 (28.2-47.1)
   First Year 32.1 (19.5-44.6) 17.0 (6.9-27.1)
14 Validity of results† Second Year 68.3 (59.2-77.4) 70.3 (61.4-79.2)
   First Year 77.4 (66.1-88.6) 71.7 (59.6-83.8)
15 Positive predictive value Second Year‡ 14.9 (7.9-21.8) 34.7 (25.4-43.9)
   First Year 13.2 (4.1-22.3) 9.4 (1.6-17.3)
16 Continuous variables* Second Year‡ 12.9 (6.3-19.4) 30.7 (21.7-39.7)
   First Year 35.8 (22.9-48.8) 22.6 (11.4-33.9)
17 Ordinal variables* Second Year 27.7 (19-36.5) 44.6 (34.9-54.2)
   First Year 24.5 (12.9-36.1) 24.5 (12.9-36.1)
18 Nominal variables* Second Year 16.8 (9.5-24.1) 30.7 (21.7-39.7)
   First Year‡ 32.1 (19.5-44.6) 9.4 (1.6-17.3)
19 Research ethics Second Year 28.7 (19.9-37.5) 24.8 (16.3-33.2)
   First Year 20.8 (9.8-31.7) 22.6 (11.4-33.9)
20 Sample size calculations Second Year 12.9 (6.3-19.4) 26.7 (18.1-35.4)
   First Year 24.5 (12.9-36.1) 15.1 (5.5-24.7)
  1. * From Windish
  2. † Two possible correct answers
  3. P < 0.05 for pretest and posttest differences